Analogy concepts - 1

An analogy means a similarity or a correspondence. In questions based on analogy, you are given a pair of words or letters that have a certain relationship. From the alternatives provided, you have to select the choice that best matches the relationship existing between the first two words or letters. The given pair of words or letters is set off by a colon or ratio sign ( : ) signifying how the word A is related to the word B. The double colon ( : : ) that separate the given pair stands for “in the same way”. For example:

King : Prince : :
(a) Uncle : Nephew
(b) Profuse : Availability
(c) President : Minister    
(d) Stallion : Colt
Choice (d) is the answer. In the above example, the relationship is that of a father and a young one.

Analogy question can be solved easily by using the following methods:

A. Initially establish the relationship between the given pair and then check the answer choices to find a similar relationship. For example:

Angle : Radian : :
(a) Cattle : Herd
(b) Odometer : Speed
(c) Dearth : Scarcity
(d) Area : Hectares

Choice (d) is the answer. In the above example, Angle is measured in radians, so it is a quantity - unit relationship. Similarly ‘Area’ is measured in Hectares.

B. If the relationship is the same but positions are interchanged, then it’s like a trap, don’t go for it. For example.
Ostrich : Bird : :
(a) Mammal : Panther
(b) Bleat : Lambs
(c) Pomphret : Fish
(d) Lion : Cub

Here in Choice (a) as well as in the given question, there is a group-member relationship. Choice (a) could have been the answer had the words been interchanged to Panther : Mammals.
Choice (c) is the answer.
Now, let’s have a look at the various types of Analogical Relationships.

Type of Relationship

1. Age Relationship: 
Man : Boy
Calf : Cow
Colt : Horse
Explanation: Different terms used for different ages of same type, say ‘boy’ is the offspring of a ‘man’.

2. Antonymous Relationship:
Save : Kill
Kind : Cruel
Abrupt : Gradual
Mourn : Rejoice
Explanation: Opposite in meaning

3. Association Relationship: 
Ammeter : Current
Thermometer : Temperature 
Explanation: Ammeter is related to current (measures it ) similar to a Thermometer measuring temperature

4. Blood / Family Relationship:  
Brother : Sister
Father : Mother
Uncle : Aunt
Nephew : Niece
Explanation: Here, we have a corresponding relation at the same level

5. Cause and Effect Relationship or Event Aftermath Relationship: 
Taunt : Unpleasantness
Dirt : Disease
Explanation: The second word is a reaction that occurs due to the first

6. Characteristic Relationship
Intelligentsia : Elitist
Rabble : Plebeian
Explanation: Intelligentsia is characterized as elitist, while rabble is characterized as plebeian

7. Comparative Relationship
Graphite : Black
Emerald : Green
Explanation: Examples used while making comparisons of colors and properties

8. Classification Relationship 
Clam : Mollusc
Crocodile : Reptile
Man : Mammal
Hammer : Tool
Car : Vehicle
Water : Liquid
Explanation: Biological / Botanical / Physical / Chemical Classification

9. Degree of Difference: 
Tepid : Hot
Admiration : Obsession
Hot : Sizzling
Have same meaning but Relationship difference is of shade degree or intensity only.

10. Finished Product - Raw Material Relationship
 Rubber : Latex
Oil : Seed
Linen : Flax
Fabric : Yarn
Explanation: First part is the raw material for the second one