Usage of Pronouns

Pronouns are used in the place of nouns. But some of which do not fall easily under the description of words that replace nouns. There are several different kinds of pronouns, including:
  • Personal pronouns (e.g., he, they, she, it)
  • Demonstrative pronouns (e.g., that, this, these, those)
  • Interrogative pronouns (e.g., which, who)
  • Indefinite pronouns (e.g.,many, everyone, everything,  none, several, all, each, every)
  • Possessive pronouns (e.g.,mine, his, your, their)
  • Reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another)
  • Relative pronouns (e.g., which, where, who, that)
  • Reflexive pronouns (e.g., itself, himself)
  • Intensive pronouns (e.g., itself, himself)
Rule 1*: A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent - i.e.
1) 'one' must be followed by 'one'.
2) Everyone, nobody, or anyone are followed by 'his'.
3) If second (you) and third person (he) are used as pronouns following pronoun should be 'you' your' etc.
4) If first (I) and second (you) person pronoun are used the following pronoun will be 'our'.

One should not forget his duty.  
One should not forget one's duty. 
Everyone is incharge of one's work.  
Everyone is incharge of his work.  
You and he are aware of their rights.  
You are he are aware of your rights. 
You and I are to manage your affairs.  
You and I are to manage our affairs  

Rule 2*: If a pronoun is the complement of to be, it should be in the subjective case.
It is him who met me.  
It is he who met me.  
In the above given sentence he completes the sense of is ( a form of to be ; other forms of to be are - was, were, are ) so it should be in the subjective case.

Rule 3*: Let is a verb so it is followed by the objective case of the pronoun
Let you and he work together. 
Let you and him work together. 

Rule 4*: If a pronouns is the object of a preposition it should be in the objective case.  between and besides are pronouns.
This is between you and I  
This is between you and me  
Besides I none else was there.  
Besides me none else was there. 

Rule 5: Pronoun who is used when the verb is in active voice.
There are many girls whom we know are flirts.  
There are many girls who we know are flirts.  

Rule 6: Pronoun whom is used when the verb related to it is in passive voice.
Who are you calling ?  
Whom are you calling ?  

Rule 7: If a relative pronoun is used in subjective and objective cases ( who whom) we cannot put one pronoun in place of two.)
He met a foreigner who he knew and was a famous singer  
He met a foreigner whom he knew and who was a famous singer  

Rule 8: When a pronoun follows 'than' or as its case is decided by imaging the verb and completing the sentence.
He is better placed than me
He is better placed than I am.  

Rule 9: 'the same' should not be used in place of a pronoun.
After reading this book return the same to me.  
After reading this book return it to me.  

Rule  10: When the following verbs are used reflexively a reflexive pronoun must be put after them.
acquit, absent, enjoy,apply, avail, resign, over-reach, exert
He enjoyed during the bus journey.  
He enjoyed himself during the bus journey.  

Reflexive pronoun is not used after the following verbs:
bathe, break, make, lengthen, stop, steal, form, feed, qualify, gather, hide, burst, roll, rest, turn, speed open, move, keep.
He kept himself away from the dispute  
He kept away from the dispute  

Reflexive pronoun cannot be used in place of a noun.
Deepak and myself will work together.  
Deepak and I will work together.  

But when we say " I myself saw him " remember "myself" is not a substitute for the subject.

Rule 11: THAT is used in preference to WHO and WHICH in the following cases :
a) after adjectives in the superlative degree, - "This is the best that you can get."
b) after the words like all, same, nothing and only - "All that glitters is not gold ".
c) after interrogative pronouns - "Who are you that should meddle in my affairs".
d) after two antecedents one denoting a person and the other a thing or an animal. -  "The lady and her dog that came, have gone"

Rule 12: After SUCH and SAME pronouns AS or THAT are used.
"Such a threat as he has given is not good".  
"It is the same pair that I had rejected". 

Rule 13: WHOSE should not be used for lifeless things.
This is the tree whose shade you enjoy.  
This is the tree the shade of which you enjoy.  

Rule 14: A relative pronoun should be put as close to the noun it refers as is possible.
I went to Rajiv's house who was a great leader.  
I went to the house of Rajiv who was a great leader.  

Rule 15:  The nouns like MANNER and WAY should be followed by IN WHICH.
The way he handled the situation was not desirable.  
The way in which he handled the situation was not desirable.  

Rule 16: 'Each other' is used for two and "one another" for more than two.
These five persons love each other.  
These five persons love one another.  

Rule 17: A noun or pronoun in the possessive case should not be used with an abstract noun.  In the above given example 'separation' is an abstract noun hence it should not be preceded by a possessive pronoun 'your'.
I cannot bear your separation.  
I cannot bear separation from you.  

Rule 18: 
123 Rule: ( First person first, second person next and third person last) :
While confessing a fault (or expressing a negative idea) the sequence of the personal pronouns should be followed in the above order.
You, he and I are at fault and will be punished  
I, you, and he are at fault and will be punished.  

Rule 19:
321 Rule: (Third person first, second person next, and first person last) While expressing a positive idea or a praise, the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
I, you and he, will get an award for the good work we have done.  
He, you and I will get an award for the good work we have done.  

Other rules:

This book is your's.  
This book is yours.  
He took it to be she.  
He  took it to be her.  
Did you ever see the photographs of we two ?  
Did you ever see the photographs of us two ?  
Whom do you want to meet ? She or he ?  
Whom do you want to meet ? Her or Him ?  
Who did you talk to ?  
Whom did you talk to ?  
None was present there but I  
None was present there but me.  
It could not be her.  
It could not be she.  
It is I.  ✘!
It is me  
(Today's grammarians are using "It is me " and It is I became extinct)