Introduction to programming and C

1. What is a Program?
Ans: set of instructions passed to a computer that tells it to do some task.

2. What are the basic steps before executing a program (by the programmer) written by the same programmer)
Ans: a)Algorithm/logic/plan preparation
c)Transformation (Compilation/ Interpretation)(conversion of high level language to low level).

3. What is a programming language?
Ans: It is a medium of communication between user and the computer.Used for writing programs.

4. What is a Syntax?
Ans : The set of rules that govern the writing of a particular statement in a particular programming language.

5. What is a Symantic?
Ans : The meaning of a syntax

6. Define efficiency of a Program
Ans: A program is said to be efficient if it runs with maximum speed and uses minimum memory(resources).

7.Features of LLL Vs HLL
Platform dependent
platform independent (not tied to any one h/w architec.)
Program development is slow
Runs efficiently
less efficiently

8. What is meant by System software and Application software?
Ans: System software:The software used to run and maintain the system.eg:Operating system.
Application software:The software used to perform a specific task.eg:M word,excel,ppt etc.

9. What is a statement?
Ans: Any expression, including an assignment or a function call can be a statement.

10. Differentiate Compilation & Interpretation
Ans: Compilation :Converting entire source program into object code at a time.
 Interpretation:Converts the source program into object code line by line.

11. What is Structured Programming?
Ans: A program, which consists of:

12. What is an Assembly Code?
Ans: Symbolic representation of machine code instructions.

14. When is low-level programming used?
Ans:Low-level programming is typically used only for very small programs (because it is a very slow process),
or for segments of code that are highly critical and must run as efficiently as possible.

15.  What is C?
a)It is a Middle level programming language.It combines both the features of low level and high level.
b)It is derived from BCPL and B.
c)Invented by Dennis Ritche in 1972 at AT &T bell's.

16.  Explain the necessity of learning C (Why anyone can learn C)?
Ans:It is a userfriendly language.It is the basic language for any other programming languages.It is very simple.

17. Name some popular software developed using C?
Ans: Unix, Windows, Linux, Solaris, Macintosh, IBM OS/400 etc Operating Systems
Desktop Computer Games

18. Mention different types of errors in C?
Ans: a)Compile time(Syntax) errors.eg: missing semicolon, improper “ and {
b)Runtime errors.eg:division by zero.
c)Data errors
d)Logical errors

19. What does linking mean?
Ans: It  provides instructions to the compiler to link required functions from the system library.
eg:It informs compiler to link printf(),scanf() functions from standard library stdio.

20. What is typecasting?
Ans:Temporary conversion of a variable from one type into another type
Eg : c = (float) a / b;

21.What are the characteristics of C?
Ans: a) Every c program requires a main() function from where the execution start.
b) c programs are written in lowercase letters.
c) Every executable statement in c should terminate with a semicolon.
d) c is a free form language(we can write any number of statements in one line separated with semicolon).

22. In header files weather the functions are declared or defined?

23. What are the types of constants in c?
Ans: 1. Numeric constants
1.1.Integer constants
1.2.real or floating point constants
2. Character constants
2.1.single character constants
2.2.string constants

24. What is the use of typedef and enumerations?
Ans: typedef and enum are user defined datatypes.
Used to create a new datatype name for an existing datatype.
eg: typedef longint s;
s a,b,c;
enumerations used to declare variables that store list of names.

enum days {sun,mon,tue,wed,......};
days a1,a2,a3;

25. Difference between pre increment and post increment?
Ans:Pre increment:It first increments the value of the variable next it will assign the value to the left hand side variable.
post increment:It first assigns the value to the variable on the left hand side and then increments the value.
eg: a=5; a=5
b=++a; b=a++;
here b=6 a=6 here b=5 a=6