-->

Time, Speed and Distance Formulas


Key Formulas:
1.  $\text{Distance = Speed × Time}$
2.  $\text{Speed} = \dfrac{\text{Distance}}{\text{Time}}$
3.  $\text{Time} = \dfrac{\text{Distance}}{\text{Speed}}$
4.  To convert kilometers per hour (kmph) into meters per second (m/s), multiply with $\dfrac{5}{{18}}$
5.  To convert meters per second (m/s) into kilometers per hour (kmph), multiply with $\dfrac{18}{{5}}$
6.  If the ratio of speeds is a : b : c, then the ratio of times taken is =  $\displaystyle\frac{1}{a}:\frac{1}{b}:\frac{1}{c}$

Average Speed:

7.  Average speed = $\displaystyle\frac{{{\text{Total distance travelled}}}}{{{\text{Total time taken}}}}$
8.  A person travels from A to B and then returns to A at speeds $x$ and $y$, then the average speed of the entire journey = $\dfrac{{2xy}}{{x + y}}$
9.  A person travels from P to Q and then goes from Q to R taking equal times with speeds $x$ and $y$, then the average speed of the entire journey = $\dfrac{{x + y}}{2}$

Relative speed Formulas:
Opposite Direction:
If two objects are moving in opposite directions towards each other at speeds $u$ and $v$, then Relative speed = Speed of first object + Speed of second object = $u + v$. 

10.  Time required for both objects to meet each other =  $\dfrac{\text{Distance}}{\text{Relative speed}}$ = $\dfrac{D}{u + v}$

In the above case, time required for the boy to meet the girl = $\dfrac{\text{Distance}}{\text{Relative speed}}$ = $\dfrac{{80}}{{3 + 5}} = 10$ seconds.
Distance covered by the Girl by that time they meet each other = $5 m/s \times 10 sec$ = 50 meters
Distance covered by the Boy by that time they meet each other = $3 m/s \times 10 sec$ = 30 meters
Note:
Distances covered is directly proportional to speeds. So distance covered by the girl and boy should be equal to 5 : 3.
So, distance covered by the girl = $\dfrac{5}{{5 + 3}} \times 80 = 50$ meters
distance covered by the boy = $\dfrac{3}{{5 + 3}} \times 80 = 30$ meters

Same Direction:
If the two objects move in the same direction with speeds u and v, then Relative speed = difference between their speeds = $u - v$.
11.  Time required for both objects to meet each other =  $\dfrac{\text{Distance}}{\text{Relative speed}}$ =  $\dfrac{D}{u - v}$

In the above case, time required for the police to catch the thief= $\dfrac{\text{Distance}}{\text{Relative speed}}$ = $\dfrac{{60}}{{8 - 5}} = 20$ seconds.
Distance covered by the police by that time he catches the thief = $8 m/s \times 20 sec$ = 160 meters
Distance covered by the thief by that time he was caught by the police = $6 m/s \times 20 sec$ = 120 meters

12. If the two objects start from A and B with speeds u and v respectively, and after crossing each other take a and b hours to reach B and A respectively, then u : v = $\sqrt {\displaystyle\frac{b}{a}} $